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Tugas About lockdown – English For IT II

Pertanyaan : 

Make a video n foto telling obout your activities& your family activities while this lockdown  stuation

Status : 100% Tercapai

Keterangan : Saya sudah mengerjakaan tugas tersebut sesuai intruksi 

Bukti : 

mohon maaf mrs tolong tunggu sebentar jaringan saya sedang jelek untuk mengupload vidio nya di google drive, saya sedang menunggu proses upload vidio di google drive

 

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Tugas 2 logika matematika muhammad Febri Fadillah 2021428917

Berikan contoh masing –masing soal berikut :
1. a. Buktikan Bahwa ~ (p  ~ q) adalah suatu tautologi
b. Apakah setiap dua tautologi berekivalensi logis ?

2. Buktikan setiap pernyataan berikut ini ! (Berikan Contohnya )
a. p  (p  p)
b. p  (p V p)
c. ~ (p V q)  (~ p  ~ q) (hukum De Morgan)
d. ~ (p  q)  (~ p V ~ q) (hukum De Morgan)

3. Buktikan bahwa p  q tidak ekivalen dengan p  q

4. Buktikan bahwa p  q ekivalen dengan (p  q)  (q  p)

5. Buktikan bahwa (p  q)  ~ (p V q) merupakan kontradiksi.

6. Manakah diantara pernyataan berikut ini yang merupakan tautologi ?
a. p  (p  q)
b. p  (p V q)
c. (p q)  p
d. (p V q)  p
e. q  (p  q)

JAWAB :
1.
A. Buktikan bahwa ~(p^ ~q) adalah suatu tautologi
p q ~p ~q p ^ ~q ~(p ^ ~q)
T T F F F T
T F F T T F
F T T F F T
F F T T F T
Dalam tabel kebenaran membuktikan bahwa ~(p ∧ ~q) bukan merupakan tautologi
B. Apakah setiap dua tautologi berekuivalensi logis?
Syarat tautologi adalah untuk setiap kemungkinan p dan q maka pernyataan bernilai TRUE.
Syarat dua buah pernyataan dikatakan ekivalen (berekivalensi logis) jika kedua pernyataan
itu mempunyai nilai kebenaran yang sama.
Setiap dua tautologi akan berekivalensi logis karena memiliki nilai kebenaran yang sama

2. Buktikan setiap pernyataan berikut ini
a. p  (p  p)
p p p Ù p
T T T
F F F
TERBUKTI EKUIVALEN, karena nilai kebenarannya SAMA.
Contoh:
Budi sudah makan belajar dan makan

b. p  (p V p)
p p p Ú p
T T T
F F F
TERBUKTI EKUIVALEN, karena nilai kebenarannya SAMA.
Contoh:
Bandung atau Palembang adalah kota yang terletak di Pulau Jawa
c. ~ (p V q)  (~ p  ~ q) (hukum De Morgan)
P q p Ú q ~(p Ú q) ~p ~q (~p Ù ~q)
T T T F F F F
T F T F F T F
F T T F T F F
F F F T T T T
TERBUKTI EKUIVALEN, karena nilai kebenarannya tidak sama.
Contoh ;
Ibu tidak pergi mengantar adik dan saya tidak belajar
d. ~ (p  q)  (~ p V ~ q) (hukum De Morgan)
p q ~p ~q p Ù q ~(p Ù q) (~p Ú ~q)
T T F F T F F
T F F T F T T
F T T F F T T
F F T T F T T
TERBUKTI EKUIVALEN, karena nilai kebenarannya SAMA.
Contoh :
Ibu pergi mengantar adik dan saya sekolah

3. Buktikan bahwa p  q tidak ekivalen dengan p  q
p q p Ù q p Þ q
T T T T
T F F F
F T F T
F F F T
TERBUKTI TIDAK EKUIVALEN, karena dalam tabel kebenaran p^ q tidak sama dengan pq
4. Buktikan bahwa p  q ekivalen dengan (p  q)  (q  p)
p q p Þ q q Þ p p Û q (p Þ q) Ù (q Þ p)
T T T T T T
T F F T F F
F T T F F F
F F T T T T
TERBUKTI EKUIVALEN, karena p  q ekuivalen dengan (p  q) Ù (q  p) nilai
kebenarannya SAMA.
5. Buktikan bahwa (p  q)  ~ (p V q) merupakan kontradiksi.
p q p Ù q p Ú q ~p Ú q (p Ù q) Ù ~(p Ú q)
T T T T F F
T F F T F F
F T F T F F
F F F F T F
TERBUKTI BAHWA MERUPAKAN KONTRADIKSI, karena (p  q) Ù ~(p V q) pernyataan yang bernilai false.

6. Manakah diantara pernyataan berikut ini yang merupakan tautologi ?
a. p  (p  q)
b. p  (p V q)
c. (p^ q)  p
d. (p V q)  p
e. q  (p  q)
a. p  (p  q)
p q p Ù q p Þ (p Ù q)
T T T T
T F F F
F T F T
F F F T
BUKAN TAUTOLOGI, karena nilai kebenarannya ada yang TRUE dan FALSE.
b. p  (p V q)
p q p Ú q p Þ (p Ú q)
T T T T
T F T T
F T T T
F F F T
TAUTOLOGI, karena nilai kebenarannya SELALU TRUE.
c. (p ^ q)  p
p q (p Ù q) (p Ù q) Þ p
T T T T
T F F T
F T F T
F F F T
TAUTOLOGI, karena nilai kebenarannya SELALU BENAR
d. (p V q)  p
p q p Ú q p Ú q Þ p
T T T T
T F T T
F T T F
F F F T

BUKAN TAUTOLOGI, karena nilai kebenarannya ada yang TRUE dan FALSE.
e. q  (p  q)
p q p Þ q q Þ (p Þ q)
T T T T
T F F T
F T T T
F F T T
TAUTOLOGI, karena nilai kebenarannya SELALU BENAR.

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Tugas Mandiri II LOGIKA MATEMATIKA ML701D | RIZKI ALPIAN SAH -1921424503

Pertanyaan:

Berikan contoh masing –masing  soal berikut  :

  1. Berikan contoh masing –masing soal berikut :

    1. a. Buktikan Bahwa ~ (p  ~ q) adalah suatu tautologi
    b. Apakah setiap dua tautologi berekivalensi logis ?

    2. Buktikan setiap pernyataan berikut ini ! (Berikan Contohnya )
    a. p  (p  p)
    b. p  (p V p)
    c. ~ (p V q)  (~ p  ~ q) (hukum De Morgan)

    d. ~ (p  q)  (~ p V ~ q) (hukum De Morgan)

    3. Buktikan bahwa p  q tidak ekivalen dengan p  q

    4. Buktikan bahwa p  q ekivalen dengan (p  q)  (q  p)

    5. Buktikan bahwa (p  q)  ~ (p V q) merupakan kontradiksi.

    6. Manakah diantara pernyataan berikut ini yang merupakan tautologi ?
    a. p  (p  q)

    b. p  (p V q)

    c.(p q)p

    d. (p V q)  p

    e. q  (p  q)

Status: 100% Tercapai

Keterangan: saya sudah mengerjakaan tugas ini dengan baik

Bukti: 

 

1-2

 

2-3

 

 

4,5,6

 

6

 

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Tugas mandiri II Logika matematika

Pertanyaan:

Berikan contoh masing –masing soal berikut :

1. a. Buktikan Bahwa ~ (p  ~ q) adalah suatu tautologi
b. Apakah setiap dua tautologi berekivalensi logis ?

2. Buktikan setiap pernyataan berikut ini ! (Berikan Contohnya )
a. p  (p  p)
b. p  (p V p)
c. ~ (p V q)  (~ p  ~ q) (hukum De Morgan)

d. ~ (p  q)  (~ p V ~ q) (hukum De Morgan)

3. Buktikan bahwa p  q tidak ekivalen dengan p  q

4. Buktikan bahwa p  q ekivalen dengan (p  q)  (q  p)

5. Buktikan bahwa (p  q)  ~ (p V q) merupakan kontradiksi.

6. Manakah diantara pernyataan berikut ini yang merupakan tautologi ?
a. p  (p  q)

b. p  (p V q)

c.(p q)p

d. (p V q)  p

e. q  (p  q)

Status: 100% Tercapai

Keterangan: saya sudah mengerjakaan tugas tersebut sesuai intruksi

Bukti: 

https://drive.google.com/a/raharja.co/file/d/103eaxIyqtQ1GNwn1wpRyvVAYXoSc_q0J/view?usp=drivesdk

By

Statistika Pertemuan 8 – Irfan Hidayat || 1912424774

Pertanyaan :

Baca dan Pelajari Ebook yang sudah saya berikan pada bab ini dan selesaikan soal berikut:

1.Jelaskan pengertian pengujian hipotesis komparatif?
2.Jelaskan komparatifk sampel?
3.Jelaskan sampel berkorelasi?
4.Jelaskan sampel independen?
Status : 100% tercapai
Keterangan : Saya sudah mengerjakan tugas sesuai instruksi
Bukti :
1. Menguji hipotesis komperatif berarti menguji parameter populasi yang berbentuk perbandingan melalui ukuran sampel yang juga berbentuk perbandingan. hal ini juga dapat berarti menguji kemampuasn generalisasi (signifikansi hasil penelitian) yang berupa perbandingan keadaan variabel dari dua sampel atau lebih.
2. Terdapat dua sample dan dua sample atau lebih. Selanjutnya setiap model komparasi sampel di bagi menjadi dua jenis yaitu sampel yang berkorelasi dan sampel yang tidak berkorelasi di sebut dengan sampel independen.
Pada bagian ini di kemukakan statistik yang di gunakan untuk menguji hipotesis komparatif dua sampel yang berkorelasi dan independen baik menggunakan statistik parametris maupun nonparametris.
3. Kelompok sampel lebih dari 2 (dengan karakter yang sama)

Di dalam penelitian ini kelompok sampel dapat diambil lebih dari dua dengan karakter sampel yang berhubungan.

4. Menguji hipotesis dua sampel independen adalah menguji kemampuan generalisasi rata–rata data dua sampel yang tidak berkorelasi. Misalnya perbandingan penghasilan petani dan nelayan, disiplin kerja pegawai negeri dan swasta. Teknik statistik yang digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis komparatif, tergantung jenis datanya.

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Tugas Mandiri II LOGIKA MATEMATIKA ML701D – Nur Iskandar 1921425702

JAWABAN NYA.

     

By

tugas 2 logika mtk satria akbar mahardika

bukti : TUGAS MANDIRI 2 ML701D 

TUGAS MANDIRI 2 ML701D

(DI KLIK TULISAN TUGAS MANDIRI 2 NYA PAK SUPAYA MUNCUL TUGASNYA)

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Tugas Mandiri II Logika Matematika – Ilham Riyan Nur Rahman

1. Pertanyaan

2. Status

Tercapai 100%

3. Keterangan

Saya sudah megerjakan tugas ini

4. Bukti jawaban

By

B

THE HEINEMANN TOEFL 

 

AUDIO SCRIPT

 

Complete Practice TOEFL Test One

 

 CT1LA

CT1LB

CT1LC

 

COMPILED BY :

 

Dra. Nurlaila Rais, MM., MH 

 

Tangerang

 

Part A  (CT1LA)

 

  1. * Would you like me to read you the instructions again?

* Yes, please. I’m lost.

 

       What does the woman mean?

 

  1. She doesn’t understand the instructions.
  2. She lost the instructions she was reading
  3. She doesn’t want to follow the instructions
  4. She thinks she and her friend are lost

 

  1. * It only took me a few days to write my literature paper.   

* Really? It’s been a month, and I still haven’t finished mine.       

 

What does the man mean?

 

  1. He will complete his paper this month.
  1. The mine has been closed for a month.
  1. It is taking him a long time to write his paper
  1. He can help the woman in a little while.

 

  1. * Do you think smoking is allowed here?

       * Well, I don’t see any ashtrays around.

 

    What does the woman imply?

 

  1. Ashtrays aren’t allowed here.
  1. They aren’t any cigarettes here.
  1. She can’t see very well.
  1. Smoking probably isn’t permitted here

 

  1. * Do you think you’ll be able to find time for a vacation this term?    

* Are you kidding! With all the work I have to do?

           

What does the woman mean?

 

  1. She’ll take her work with her on vacation.
  1. She and the man will have a good time on vacation.
  1. She won’t have time for a vacation
  1. She thinks she can finish her work on time.

 

  1. * Can I get you some more pie?

       * More? I’ve already had two pieces!

 

    What does the man about the pie? 

 

  1. He would like a larger piece this time.
  1. He doesn’t want anymore
  1. His first piece was too large.
  1. He’d like some more in a little while.

 

  1. * I’ll talk to Bill when he come in to work today.    

       * That is, if he comes in!

 

    What is the woman saying about Bill?

 

  1. She thinks he might be late to work.
  1. His income isn’t high enough.
  1. She isn’t sure he’ll come to work today
  1. She’d like to talk to him, too.

 

  1. * The concert wasn’t too long for you, was it?      

       * Too long?   

       * I could have stayed forever!

 

    What does the woman mean?

 

  1.  She has never seen such a long concert.
  1.  She enjoyed the concert very much 
  1.  She’ll take the man along.
  1.  She didn’t like the last long.

 

  1. * Do you think I should call the college about my application?   

* I don’t see how it could hurt.

            

What does the woman mean?

 

  1. It is not a bad idea to telephone the college
  1. She will call the college for the man.
  1. Her eyes hurt, so she cannot see very well.
  1. She will give the man’s application to her colleges.

 

  1. * Could you please fill my car with unleaded and check the oil?   

* Certainly. And while I’m at it, I’ll wash your windshield.

   

What is the woman’s job? 

   

  1. Gas station attendant
  1. Housekeeper.
  1. Bank teller.
  1. Flight attendant.

 

  1. * Dan can’t figure out how to set up his computer.  

* Should he read the instruction booklet?

               

What does the woman think Dan should do?

 

  1. Ask someone to help him with his computer. 
  1. Read the instructions for setting up his computer
  1. Try to take his computer apart by himself. 
  1. Use his computer to help him to set up his math project.

 

  1. * I wonder where Jane is.   

         * I think she is still tied up on the phone. 

 

    What does the woman say about Jane?

 

  1. She’s trying to tie the bow.
  1. She will call the man as soon as possible.
  1. She is talking on the phone.
  1. She hasn’t gone home yet.

 

  1. * I’d like to take you up on that invitation to dinner on Saturday night.

* Great. Than you will be in town! 

       

What had the man assumed at first?

 

  1. The women didn’t want to deliver the invitation.
  1. The women would be gone on Saturday.
  1. The women would take the man to the dinner.
  1. He needed to take the invitation to the women

 

  1. * Did Susan make it to all four classes today?       

         * Only to three, as far as I know.

 

    What does the man think?

 

  1. Susan only has three classes.
  1. Susan knows about her third class.
  1. He missed a class because of Susan.
  1. Susan didn’t attend one class

 

  1. * Do you think we should water the garden?   

        * Water the garden?   

* It’s been pouring for the past three days.

           

What does the woman mean?

 

  1. She would like the man to pour her a glass of water.
  1. It stop raining three days ago.
  1. It probably won’t rain again for a few days.
  1. The garden doesn’t need any more water

 

  1. * Fred said the two of you are going to do a photography project together. 

* Yes. And what a treat for me!       

* Fred’s the best photographer I know! 

 

What does the man mean? 

 

  1. He’s looking forward to working with Fred
  1. They need to handle the photographs carefully.
  1. Fred should be treated like a professional.
  1. Their project will be the best.

 

  1.   * You’re going to join us for dinner tonight, aren’t you?

        * Sorry. I have a chemistry test to take first thing in the morning.

       

What does the woman mean?

 

  1. She has to give a test tomorrow morning.
  1. She can’t take her test first thing in the morning.
  1. She won’t be able to join them for dinner
  1. She intends to join them tonight after dinner.

 

17    *    I’ve got some news.  

         * Laura will be coming home from the hospital tomorrow. 

         * It’s good to know she’s finally feeling better.

       

What does the man imply about Laura?

 

  1. She was only in the hospital for a short time.
  1. She will leave for the hospital soon.
  1. She was ill for quite some time
  1. He will finally have time to visit her in the hospital tomorrow

 

  1. * I hear that Pamela didn’t get that job.       

* Yeah. I guess she just didn’t measure up to the other applicants.

               

What does the woman say about Pamela?

 

  1. She wasn’t as qualified as the other applicants.
  1. She doesn’t really want to get the job.
  1. She wasn’t very friendly to the other applicants.
  1. No one could measure the value of her past experience.

 

  1. * I’m going to give my mother this beautiful bracelet for her birthday?          

* Just like that? In that plain package?       

* Don’t you need to wrap it first and put a ribbon on it?

 

What does the man suggest the woman do?

 

  1. Buy her mother a different gift.
  1. She what her mother wants first.
  1. Make her mother’s package look more like a gift.
  1. Find something else that her mother would like.

 

20    *    I need to request an extension on the deadline for my project.   

* I simply won’t have time to finish it by Friday.

* I’d be happy to talk to you about it, but I don’t know how much extra 

   time I can allow.

   

  1. What does the man mean?

 

  1. The women can have as much time as she needs.
  1. He doesn’t have any time to talk.
  1. He wants to see the woman on Friday.
  1. He may not be able to extend the deadline.

 

21    *    Do you think there’s anyone around who could take me to the airport?    

*    Did you check with Susan?   

* She has a car.

       

What does the woman suggest the man do?

 

  1. Borrow Susan’s car to go to the airport
  1. Ask Susan if she will take him to the airport. 
  1. Write Susan a check for the car.
  1. Find out if Susan will be in the airport.

 

  1. * I hear the meeting has been postponed until next Monday.     

* Great … I was supposed to start my vacation at the end of this week.

     

What does the woman mean?

 

  1. She might have to postpone the start of her vacation
  1. She is glad that the meeting will take place while she is gone.
  1. She will reschedule the meeting for the end of this week
  1. She heard that the man couldn’t come to the meeting.

 

  1. * Would you like to meet at the library?   

         * That’s as good a place as any, I guess.

 

What does the man mean?

 

  1. Any place but library is good for him.
  1. He doesn’t mind meeting at the library
  1. He can’t think of a good place to meet.
  1. He isn’t sure where the woman wants to meet.

 

  1. * Have they hired Larry yet?   

       * I think they’re still checking his references.

 

    What can be inferred about Larry?

 

  1. He will be checking out several references.
  1. He is looking for a job
  1. He was hired without references.
  1. He has just begun his new position.

 

  1. * I’m going out to get some soup.    

* Can I bring you back anything?      

* Hmmm. I might like a can of soda.   

* Thanks for the offer.    

 

What does the woman want the man to do?

 

  1. Go out for some soup.
  1. Buy her a soda 
  1. Take back his soda.
  1. Turn down her offer.

 

  1. * This is the best meal I’ve had in a long time!       

         * Oh, really?      

* I would have expected the food in this restaurant to be too spicy for you.

       

What does the man imply?l

 

  1. He hasn’t had a good meal in a long time. 
  1. The woman should avoid eating in restaurants.
  1. The woman doesn’t care for a spicy food
  1. He will help the woman prepare dinner.

 

  1. * Greg really sticks close to home, doesn’t he?          

       * Like glue.         

* And he never calls anyone, either.

                   

What does the man mean?

 

  1. The glue Greg lent him is not sticking.
  1. Greg needs to fix the fence at this house.
  1. Greg doesn’t do any socializing
  1. He hasn’t been able to reach Greg by phone.

 

  1. * Did you understand what the professor meant ?    

         * It was way over my head.

 

What does the woman mean?

 

  1. She couldn’t hear the professor’s lecture.
  1. She doesn’t agree with what the professor said. 
  1. She could’t see over the professor’s head.
  1. She didn’t understand the professor

 

  1. * I understand the ski trip scheduled for this weekend has been 

         canceled.   

* Too bad.   

* I was looking forward to it.

           

What does the man mean?

 

  1. He couldn’t see the sky trail in front of him. 
  1. He is going to look for something else to do.
  1. He wanted to go skying
  1. He’ll reschedule his trip.

 

  1. * Are you sure all of Ben’s friends have been invited to his birthday party?

*    I’ll go over the guest list one more time.    

 

What is the man going to do?           

   

  1. Call all of the guest one more time.
  1. Give the list of guests to the woman to check over.
  1. Go over to Ben’s house to check on the preparations.
  1. Make sure all of Ben’s friends have been invited

 

Part B  (CT1LB)

 

Questions 31 through 34. Listen to a conversation about college club 

 

  • Did you hear about the special meeting of the club tomorrow afternoon?   

 

  • I was a notice on the bulletin board, but what’s it about?

 

  • Well, the club has agreed to raise money for the American Heart

 

   Association, and we need to organize our fundraisers for the year.

 

  • Hmmm. That sounds like a lot of work, but it’s a worthy cause, so I’ll try to help.   

 

  • What are the ideas for making money?

 

  • Some of us want to have a dance marathon-you know how that works, don’t you?

 

  • You mean get pledges of money per hour for the number of hours that you dance? 

 

  • Isn’t there an easier way?     

 

  • I don’t have that much energy.

 

  • Well, there’s also going to be a raffle.   

 

  • Maybe you could help with that.

 

  • That’s a good idea.   

 

  • My aunt has a travel agency, and maybe she’d provide airline tickets to Florida for spring break as a prize.   

 

  • That would sell a lot of tickets.

 

  • After this rain and snow, I’d buy a dozen myself!

 

  1. How did the woman know that there was a meeting?

 

  1.  The man told her.
  1.  She received a call.
  1.  She read about it
  1.  She organized the meeting.

 

  1. Why will the woman participate?

 

  1.  She likes to work hard.
  1.  She doesn’t have a job and can afford the time.
  1.  She agreed that the Heart Association is a worthy organization
  1.  She likes to dance.

 

  1. What will the woman do for the club?

 

  1.  She will sell raffle tickets
  1.  She will ask her aunt to give a big prize.
  1.  She will go to Florida for spring break.
  1.  She will work for the travel agency.

 

  1. Why did the man say he would buy a raffle ticket?

 

  1.  He’d like to enjoy some good weather.
  1.  He has always wanted to fly an airplane.
  1.  He will have time off after the winter season.
  1.  Dancing takes too much energy.

 

Questions 35 through 37. Listen to the following conversation between two students who are having lunch together

 

  • Hello, there   

 

  • You’re late.   

 

  • Let’s try finding a place in the dining room.

 

  • Sorry, but, well, a few of us were selected to stay after Professor Keene’s lecture to take a self-assessment quiz.    

 

  • His talk this morning was about pessimism and optimism, and he asked us to complete the survey.

 

  • Well, what did you learn?   

 

  • Is there really such a thing as bad or good luck?

 

  • Yes, in a sense.   

 

  • For example, pessimists tend to unconsciously set life goals for themselves which will be extremely difficult to achieve.     

 

  • So, in a way they invite failure.   

 

  • An optimist is usually more realistic about this.

 

  • Did Professor Keene mention why a pessimist might have such a dismal

   outlook on the world?

 

  • There are a couple of reasons.

          

  • First, environment has a lot to do with it; experiencing repeated failure in the formative years will likely produce a pessimist. 

 

  • But what interested me most was the relationship a pessimist has with his or her conscience.

 

  • You mean that little voice inside that tells me what’s what?

 

  • Uh-huh. Optimists look at conscience as a source of strength and guidance, and act on its promptings.   

 

  • Pessimists, on the other hand, usually reject the demands of conscience and see it as an alien, even an evil threat.

 

  • Interesting.   

 

  • So, how did you do in the self-assessment survey?

 

  • Oh, those things never turn out right for me anyway!      

 

  • You just can’t trust them. It looks like rain, doesn’t it?                

 

  1. Why did the woman arrive late?

 

  1.  She was taking a math test.
  1.  She had to fill out a survey after her class.
  1.  She was questioning some of the ideas presented in Professor Keene’s lecture.
  1.  She was correcting quizzes for Professor Keene.

 

  1. According to the conversation, in what way does environment influence a person’s outlook?

 

  1.  It has little effect on shaping a person’s outlook on life.
  1.  In the early years, too many failures may produce a pessimist
  1.  A pessimist usually doesn’t take advantage of life experiences.
  1.  The environment is usually cruel to pessimists.

 

  1. What was said about the role of conscience for pessimists and optimists?

 

  1.  Optimists use their consciences to their advantage.
  1.  Pessimists have a good relationship with their consciences.
  1.  The conscience plays a minor role in shaping one’s outlook.
  1.  Pessimists follow the dictates of consciences, even though they might not want to

 

Part C  (CT1LC)

 

Questions 38 through 41. Listen to the following talk about Samuel P. Langley

 

  • I’d like to welcome you all to our aeronautics collection. 

 

  • Here we house over 3,000 items of historical significance to the development of aeronautics in the United States. 

 

  • The  exhibit you see here in front of you is our Samuel P. Langley exhibit.   
  • Langley was an astronomer, physicist, and airplane designer whose turn-of-the-century experiments in mechanical flight provided groundwork for later airplane engineers.   

 

  • Although he was unsuccessful in designing an aircraft capable of carrying a passenger, the data obtained in his experiments with unmanned flight were of historical importance.   

 

  • One of the pilotless flying machines that Langley produced was a steam-driven airplane that flew successfully over the Potomac River for a distance of 4,200 feet. 

 

  • The United States Postal Service recently honored Langley’s memory with the issue of the Langley commemorative airmail stamps.

   

  • This stamp’s design illustrates one of Langley’s inventions, the unmanned Aerodrome #5, which was the first American heavier-than-air flying machine to make a free flight of any significant length. 

 

  • In the next room, we can take a look at a model of this invention.

 

  1. Where does this talk most probably take place?

 

  1.  In a school.
  1.  At the post office.
  1.  On an airplane.
  1.  In a museum

 

  1. Why is Samuel Langley important?

 

  1.  He designed the first airplane to carry a passenger.
  1.  His work provided valuable information for inventor who came after him
  1.  He was the first man to cross the Potomac River.
  1.  He put together an aeronautics collection.

 

  1. What appears on the commemorative stamp discussed by the speaker?

 

  1.  The Potomac River.
  1.  Several items of historical significance.
  1.  A steam engine.
  1.  One of Langley’s inventions

 

 

  1. What will the speaker probably do next?

 

  1.  Move into the next room
  1.  Buy a commemorative stamp.
  1.  Take a ride in the Aerodrome #5.
  1.  Try to create a new model.

 

Questions 42 through 46. Listen to this talk about birds which navigate over oceans

 

  • Birds that fly the oceans are truly remarkable.   

 

  • Birds that fly over land and along the shore use landmarks to navigate, and they orient themselves before and after they cross large bodies of water.

    

  • Oceanic birds, on the other hand, can turn, spin, and wheel out over the ocean for days at a time, far from any land, and still seem to know exactly where they are.   

 

  • The assumption is that they use the star and some innate magnetic sense to guide them to their destinations.   

 

  • No one knows for sure.

 

  • The shearwater is a bird of ocean and an expert long-distance flier.   

 

  • A story is told about a young shearwater which was taken from its home in Great Britain, enclosed in a box, flown on an airplane to Boston, Massachusetts, and raised there.   

 

  • Twelve nights after it was released, it was back in its home in Great Britain.

 

  • Many species of birds spend most of their time far out at sea and return to land only to breed.   

 

  • These birds include albatrosses, penguins, petrels, and shearwater. 

 

  • Penguins are the only birds of this group which are not expert long-distance flyers. 

 

  • In fact penguins cannot fly at all.

   

  • They swim long distances and remain at sea for months at a time.

 

  • The greatest traveler of all, the Arctic Tern, winter’s in the Antarctic and travels about 17,700 kilometers to its breeding grounds in the Arctic.

   

  • It goes from one of the earth’s poles to the other and then back again, each year without losing it’s way.

 

  • With all of our sophisticated technology and scientific understanding, it seems hard to believe that we have not learned how the ocean birds navigate.

 

  • Perhaps we will learn one day-or perhaps this is one of nature’s mysteries which we will never understand.

 

  1. According to the speaker, how are shore birds different from oceanic birds?

 

  1.  They use landmarks to navigate
  1.  They fly at higher altitudes.
  1.  They are disoriented by large bodies of water.
  1.  They don’t spin, turn and wheel.

 

  1. How do experts believe that oceanic birds navigate?

 

  1.  They have a strong sense of smell and can keep track of land.
  1.  They are guided by the Arctic and the Atlantic.
  1.  Their urge to breed leads them back to land.
  1.  They use the stars and some innate magnetic sense

 

  1. What is the significance of the story about the shearwater taken from its home in Great Britain?

 

  1.  It seem cruel to take a bird so far from its home.
  1.  It was a new experiment to fly a bird on an airplane.
  1.  The bird was able to find its way home under seemingly impossible circumstances
  1.  The bird was able to fly the north to the south pole without getting lost.

 

  1. In which university class would this talk most likely take place?

 

  1. Ocean geology.
  1.  Biology
  1.  Psychology.
  1.  Geography.

 

  1. What can we infer about the speaker’s attitude toward nature’s mysteries?

 

  1.  Science and technology will eventually unlock all mysteries.
  1.  Some of nature mysteries may be beyond our understanding
  1.  It is hard to believe that ocean birds don’t breed at sea.
  1.  All we need to do is wait, ocean birds will show us how they navigate.

 

Questions 47 through 50. Listen to a psychology professor talk about the effect on personality of birth order.

 

  • Many efforts have been made over the years to study differences among the first, second, and last child in a family as well as the characteristics of only children-that is, children who have no brothers and sisters.   

 

  • No exact conclusion can be drawn about any particular child on the basis of these studies, but some interesting differences emerge when large groups of people are compared on the basis of birth order.   

 

  • Here are some of the findings.

 

  • First-born children tend to be high achievers.   

 

  • For example, in a recent analysis of National Merit Scholarship finalists, nearly sixty percent were first-born.   

 

  • Of the first twenty-three astronauts to go on U.S. space missions, twenty-one were either first-born or only children.   

 

  • There are particularly interesting statistics when you consider that first-born children are outnumbered   by later-born children in U.S. population by nearly two to one. 

 

  • Middle children, according to some observers, have the most  comfortable position in the family.   

 

  • Although they lack the authority most parents convey to the oldest in the family, they are also free from the pressure of being the youngest.   

 

  • They tend to be more oriented toward their siblings than the first child is and therefore are less concerned about winning their parents’ approval. 

 

  • The youngest child gets almost as much attention from the parents as the first-born or only child does.

   

  • However youngest children do not sense as much as pressure to achieve.   

 

  • They are usually the most babied members of the family since they get attention from older siblings as well as parents. 

 

  • Oldest children tend to be more serious and responsible than later-on children even though they are no brighter.   

 

  • Also, first-born children are quite sensitive-they get their feelings hurt more easily.   

 

  • They also tend more toward being perfectionists than do their younger siblings.

 

  • Second born children tend to be more easy-going and friendly than their older siblings.      

 

  • They win more popularity contests and have a higher sociability rating.

 

  • Youngest-born children have the highest sociability rating of all.

 

  • First-born and only children, from a very early age, become extremely sensitive to their parents’ rules and expectations.   

 

  • They measure themselves by adult standards, whereas younger children tend to push for earlier independence from parental rules.          

 

  • Oldest children also tend to be more traditional and religious than their younger siblings.

 

  • Parents who are aware of these tendencies can take steps to help their first-born children to be more playful and flexible, and they can ask for more responsibility from their younger children.   

 

  • But even parents who are sensitive to these patterns often don’t entirely eliminate the influence of birth order.   

 

  • Do any of these birth order characteristics apply to you?  

 

  1. What conclusion does the speaker draw from the fact that birth order differences seem to exist?

 

  1.  Parents tend to want and love their first-born children more than the others.
  1. Parents know that their first-born children are likely to be brighter, so they push them to succeed.
  1.  Parents tend to tread children differently depending on whether they are first, second, or later-born children
  1.  Parents run out of time and energy and neglect their later-born children

 

  1. What does the speaker say about parents’ ability to counteract the effects of birth order?

 

  1.  Children’s personalities are fixed by birth order and nothing can be done about it
  1.  With sensitive parenting, parents can take steps to reduce the effects on birth order.
  1.  If parents continue to pay attention to the middle child, he or she will be more flexible
  1.  Oldest children would be more sociable if they were given more independence

 

  1. Why does the speaker say that middle children often have the most comfortable spot in the family?

 

  1.  Older and younger children tend to fight with each other more often than with the middle child.
  1. The middle child gets better quality attention and more love from the parents.
  1.  Middle children are less dependent on their parents’ approval than the oldest child but free from the pressure of being the youngest
  1.  Middle children are brighter, more capable, more serious-minded and more flexible than their siblings.

 

  1. What significance does the speaker give to the fact that first-born children are outnumbered in the U.S. population by nearly two to one? 

 

  1.  First-born children are under a lot of pressure to complete successfully since they are so outnumbered.
  1.  First-born children have to dominate their younger siblings or else face being overwhelmed by them.
  1.  First-born children are brighter and more capable: therefore, they don’t have to worry about being outnumbered.
  1.  In spite of this statistic a large percentage of high achievers are first-born children

 

By

A

THE HEINEMANN TOEFL

 

AUDIO SCRIPT 

 

Complete Practice TOEFL Test Two

 

CT2LA

CT2LB

CT2LC

 

COMPILED BY :

 

Dra. Nurlaila Rais, MM., MH 

 

Tangerang

 

Part A (CT2LA)

 

  1. * Would you like to take a break now?   

       * Oh, let’s keep working.   

* We’re almost finished.

               

What does the woman want to do?

 

  1.   Stop for a while and get some rest.
  2.   Let the man finish the work.
  3.   Wait for the man to catch up with her.
  4.   Continue working for a while

 

  1. * Pete can’t seem to find his keys.   

       * Has he looked in the car?

 

    What does the woman imply?

 

  1.   Pete might have left his keys in the car
  2.   Pete shouldn’t leave his keys in the car.
  3.   She can’t help look for the keys.
  4.   She’ll look for Pete’s keys in the car.

 

  1. * I’ll have to study all weekend this weekend.    

       * Not again!

        

What does the man imply?

 

  1.   The woman doesn’t have time to study again this weekend.
  2.   The woman spends too many weekends studying.
  3.   He will not spend the entire weekend studying again
  4.   He can’t help the woman with her studies this weekend.

 

  1. * This is the most fun I’ve had in a long time!       

       * Oh, really!    

* I didn’t think you like rock concerts!

 

What does the man mean?

 

  1.   The woman shouldn’t go to the concerts like this one.
  2.   He really doesn’t know how to get to the concert.
  3.   He is surprised that the woman is enjoying herself
  4.   He isn’t having any fun at this concert.

 

  1. * Look at this jacket!   

       * I spilled tea all over it!   

       * Relax!

    * We can drop it off at the dry cleaner’s on our way home.

      

What does the man mean?

 

  1.   It’s time to go home and relax.
  2.   He’ll get the cleaning on the way home.
  3.   They’ll stop for tea before he drops the woman off.
  4.   It will be easy to get the woman’s jacket cleaned

 

  1. * Weren’t you the only French major to pass the proficiency exam?   

* Not exactly! Most everyone did!

           

What does the woman mean?

 

  1.   The man is quite right about the exam.
  2.   Almost everyone succeeded on the exam
  3.   The exam was not exactly what she expected.
  4.   No one has taken the proficiency exam yet.

 

  1. * They’ve just notified Randy that he’s been accepted at State       

          University.   

       * Great! That must really be a load off of his mind!

        

What does the woman say about Randy?

 

  1.   He must be relieved at the good news
  2.   He will have a heavy load at the university.
  3.   He won’t mind if he isn’t accepted right away.
  4.   He hasn’t have time to make up his mind about college.

 

  1. * When do you want to start moving into your new office?   

* Well, this week’s out for me.

                 

What does the man mean?

 

  1.   He’ll start moving out this week.
  2.   He doesn’t have any time this week to move
  3.   He doesn’t really need a new office.
  4.   He isn’t strong enough to move by himself.

 

  1. * Have you called the travel agent yet about getting us our tickets?

       * I got Frank to do that.   

    *    He has more free time than I do.

       

What does the woman mean?

 

  1.   She called the travel agent.
  2.   She bought a ticket for Frank.
  3.   Frank contacted the travel agent
  4.   She doesn’t have time to travel.

 

  1. * I’m on my way to pick up some coffee.  

       * Can I get you some, too?

       * Hmmm. I think I’ve already had enough for today.        

       * I guess I’ll pass.

        

What will the woman probably do?

 

  1.   Drink some more coffee.
  2.   Stop drinking coffee for today
  3.   Pass the man his coffee.
  4.   Go out with the man to buy coffee.

 

  1. * Pam sure has a lot of friends, doesn’t she!        

       * Tons! And they’re always there when she needs them, too.

               

What does the man imply?

 

  1.  He doesn’t know where Pam and her friends are.
  2.  Pam’s friends are helping her with her died.
  3.  Pam’s friends are very loyal
  4.  He doesn’t know when he’ll see Pam and her friends.

 

  1. * The students are all here.    

       * We can leave for the class outing now, can’t we?

    *    Well, not quite. The bus driver hasn’t arrived yet.   

 

What does the woman mean?

 

  1.  They can’t leave yet
  1.  They have arrived early.
  1.  The class outing has been cancelled.
  1.  The students are late for the bus.

 

  1. * I’m not sure I can finish my paper by this Friday.   

       * Can I turn it in next week?

    *    I used to accept the late papers, but not anymore.   

 

What does the man mean?

 

  1.  The woman doesn’t have any more papers to do.
  1.  The woman cannot turn her paper in late
  1.  He’s used to turning his papers in late.
  1.  He can’t accept any more papers.

 

  1. * Would you mind returning my back pack?   

       * I’m going hiking this weekend, and I need to use it.       

       * Well …uhm …I’m not exactly sure how to put this, but …when I was 

          adjusting it, one of the straps came off.

       

What is the man’s problem?

 

  1.  He doesn’t know how to adjust a back pack.
  1.  He damaged the woman’s back pack
  1.  He doesn’t want to go hiking this weekend.
  1.  He hasn’t had time to put the back pack on.

 

  1. * Did you hear all the noise coming from next door again last night?

    * I sure did.   

* Do you think we should complain to the landlord?   

 

What problem do the women have?

 

  1.  There are too many people living next door.
  1.  They can’t find their landlord.
  1.  Their neighbors are too noisy
  1.  They can’t get their neighbors to visit them.

   

 

  1.   * Did you know that Frank got a scholarship for next year?

         * So he did apply after all.

 

    What had the man assumed about Frank?

 

  1.  He had submitted his application after the deadline.
  1.  He hadn’t applied himself all year.
  1.  He had’t tried to get a scholarship
  1.  He didn’t qualify for a scholarship.

 

17    *    I’ve invited Ted over on Saturday night.   

       * I thought we could have a formal dinner. 

* With the house in the shape it’s in?       

* We’d better give it a good going over.

 

What does the man suggest?

 

  1.   They can go over to Ted’s later.
  1.   Their house needs cleaning
  1.   Ted shouldn’t come over on Saturday night.
  1.   Ted isn’t very good shape.

 

18    *    Just look at that beautiful snow!   

       * Beautiful for people like you who ski, maybe!

 

What does the woman mean?

 

  1.  She doesn’t like the snow so much
  1.  She’s looking forward to going skiing.
  1.  She agrees with the man.
  1.  She doesn’t know who is going skiing with them.

 

  1. * We’re out of computer paper.             

       * If you want to print anything out, you’ll have to come back tomorrow.            

       * But my paper’s due in an hour!

          

What does the woman mean?

 

  1.  She doesn’t mind waiting to use a printer.
  1.  She hasn’t had time to do her paper yet.
  1.  She’ll come back in an hour to print her printer.
  1.  She needs to use a printer right away

 

  1. * Frank is going to start writing his book this summer.    

* Can we do that and work full time?

       

What does the woman imply about Frank?

 

  1.  He may have too many things planned for the summer
  1.  She should looked for a full-time job.
  1.  He’s working hard so he can take the summer off to write.
  1.  He’s teaching a writing class this summer.

 

21    *    Why is it that whenever I try to call you the line is busy?   

       * I have a new roommate, and he likes to talk to his friends.   

 

What does the woman imply about his roommate?

 

  1.  He uses phone a lot
  1.  He is very busy.
  1.  He hasn’t finished moving in yet.
  1.  He is very lonely.

 

  1. * Dot says she’s going to tour both Chicago and Los Angeles in the 

         next three days!   

*    She’s got to be crazy!       

* No one in their right mind could do all of that!

 

What does the woman imply about Dot?

 

  1.  She isn’t feeling well.
  1.  She is planning to do many things
  1.  She won’t mind travelling.
  1.  She should leave in three days.

 

  1. * Karen didn’t get home until midnight last night.   

       * She is really a night owl, isn’t she!     

 

What does the man say about Karen?

 

  1.  She had to study until late last night.
  1.  She shouldn’t really get home so late.
  1.  She should be more careful at night.
  1.  She like to stay up late

 

  1. * How about going to a movie tonight?

    * I’m really bored.   

       * Hmm. I’ve been sort of fed up with movies recently.        

       * They all seem so violent.        

 

What does the woman mean?

 

  1.  She is tired of violent films.
  1.  She has been bored lately at the movies.
  1.  She would like to go out tomorrow night
  1.  She’d like to eat before going out.

 

  1. * What’s going on with Tim?       

       * Hasn’t he finished his thesis yet?   

* He’s just getting it going

       

What does the woman say about Tim?

 

  1.  He is going to finish his thesis soon.
  1.  He doesn’t have any time to go get his thesis.
  1.  His work is going very well.
  1.  He is just beginning his thesis

 

  1. * Linda certainly is doing well in her Spanish class.       

       * If only the same could be said for chemistry.

           

What does the woman imply about Linda?

 

  1.  She doesn’t say much in her chemistry class.
  1.  She feels the same about chemistry as she does about Spanish.
  1.  She is doing well both chemistry and Spanish.
  1.  She isn’t doing very well in chemistry

 

  1. * You know so much about cars.   

       * You must spend a lot of time working on them.

    *    More than I like, actually.        

 

What does the woman say about cars?

   

  1.  She has more cars than The man does.
  1.  She doesn’t like cars anymore.
  1.  She hasn’t really worked on very many cars.
  1.  She sometimes gets tired of working on cars

 

  1. * have you seen George lately?    

       * I‘ve lost touch with him.

 

     What does the woman say about George?

 

  1.  He recently wrote her a letter.
  1.  She’s going to write to him.
  1.  She’s afraid that she might be lost.
  1.  She hasn’t been in contact with him

 

  1. * Are you up for a swim?       

       * I just checked the weather report.   

    *    It’s supposed to be cold.

       

What does the man imply?

 

  1.     He’s got a cold, so he’ll stay at home.
  1.   He wants to listen to the weather report before he decided.
  1.   The water is too cold to swim in.

 

  1. * Janet doesn’t look too well.               

       * I’m sure she’s fine.

    *    She’s just been working late a lot this week.

       

What does the woman mean?           

 

  1.  Janet’s heavy workload is causing her serious health problems.
  1.  She’s certain that Janet is looking for different work.
  1.  Janet has been working very hard and is probably tired
  1.  Janet will present her work later this week.

 

   

 

Part B (CT2LB)

 

Questions 31 through 34. Listen to a telephone conversation between two students. 

 

* Hello. Kathy Larson here.

 

* Hey, Kathy!

   It’s Mark.

 

* Oh, hi Mark!   

 

* How’s it going?

 

* Well, I just finished a long paper for my world history class, and I feel like 

  celebrating a little bit.   

 

* I was wondering what you were planning on doing this afternoon.

 

* Why? What’s going on this afternoon?   

 

* I wanted to go see the new adventure movie at the Cinema Nine 

  downtown.

 

* Well …

 

* The matinee starts at 2:15.   

 

* It’s supposed to be terrific!

   

* Packed with action and special effects!

 

* Actually, Mark, I was hoping to go to Asheville this afternoon to see a new 

  exhibit at the Folklife Museum.

   

* I took a course on integrating folktales in the classroom last semester, 

  and I really got interested in the topic.   

 

* The exhibit this month just happens to be all about the art of storytelling 

  and the folktales of various people.

 

* So you would rather sit and listen to folktales than go to a movie?   

 

* I would think that the movie would have a lot more action and excitement.

 

* This isn’t an exhibit where you just sit and listen.

   

* This exhibit is made up of replicas of a country store, a kitchen, a child’s 

   bedroom, and a campfire setting.   

 

* You walk through and stop at each, and, at each stop, you listen to stories 

  told on tape.   

 

* The section featuring stories told around the campfire by children is 

  rumored to be fantastic!

     

* Would you like to come with me? 

 

* Mmmmm. I don’t think that’s for me.   

 

* Thanks anyway.

 

*   Okay, maybe some other time than.   

 

*   I hope you enjoy the movie.  

 

*   I’ll see you at school!   

 

  1. What was Mark doing before he called Kathy?

 

  1.  Watching a movie.
  1.  Reading folktales.
  1.  Talking to another friend.
  1.  Finishing his history project

 

  1. Why did Mark call Kathy?

 

  1.  To ask her to help him think of a good ending for his paper.
  1.  To invite her to a museum to walk through a new exhibit.
  1.  To invite her out to the movies
  1.  To help her celebrate.

 

  1. Why is Kathy interested in folktales?

 

  1.  She has been asked to take part in a folktales exhibit.
  1.  She studied folktales in a class
  1.  She has a paper to write about folktales.
  1.  She teaches folktales to children.

 

  1. Why didn’t mark accept Kathy’s invitation?

 

  1.  He didn’t have enough money.
  1.  He wasn’t interested in what she was going to do
  1.  He didn’t want to go all the way to Asheville.
  1.  He would rather work on his history project.

 

Part B (CT2LB)

 

Questions 35 through 37. Listen to a conversation between two students about jobs.

 

*   Gosh. I’ve got to go-I’m almost late for work!

 

*   Where do you work?

 

*   At the Lincoln Inn-and I’m supposed to be there by 2:00.

 

*   What do you do there?

 

*   I work in the kitchen.   

 

*   I make salads, and sometimes I help the baker.

 

*   Oh, I’m so jealous!    

 

*   Is the pay there very good?

 

*   Well, not really.   

 

*   I wouldn’t mind making more, actually.   

 

*   But, well, what I’m earning is better than nothing, and I should get some 

    good references if I continue doing a good job! 

 

*   Could you ask them if they need anymore help?

        

*   I’m a pretty good cook, and I waited tables last summer at the beach in  

     New Jersey.

 

*   Sure, I’ll ask.

     But, I don’t think they need anymore right now.

   

*   What days do you want to work?

 

*   Anytime, although I prefer weekends.   

 

*   During the week I can only work after classes.

 

*   If they don’t have anything for you right now, would you be interested in 

    summer job?

    

*   Yeah, I guess so.     

 

*   But I’ll be desperate by then if I haven’t found anything!

     I’ll keep my fingers crossed.

       

*   And, thanks for your willingness to help.

 

*   No problem.

      

*   But, neither one of us will have a job if I don’t get going.

           

*   My boss hates it when her employees are late for work.

   

*   See you later!

 

  1. What does the man think about his rate of pay?

 

  1.  He thinks it’s high considering the type of work he is doing.
  1.  He would like to earn more, but he feels there are other benefits as well
  1.  He can use it to buy some good reference books.
  1.  He thinks it is about right.

 

  1. Why is the woman jealous?

 

  1.  She is looking for a job and can’t find one
  1.  She loves making salads and has experience as a baker.
  1.  She was supposed to work at the Lincoln Inn, but they told her they 

       didn’t need her anymore.

  1.   She had a summer job last year but didn’t get asked back again for this summer.

 

  1. Why doesn’t the man think he’ll be able to help the woman?

 

  1.  He doesn’t think he’ll be able to keep his own job.
  1.  He doesn’t think the Lincoln Inn needs any more help right now
  1.  He wants to wait until summer to ask about a job.
  1.  There is only one position for a salad maker at the Lincoln Inn.

 

Part C (CT2LC)

 

Questions 38 through 42. Listen to talk given in a university class. 

 

*    Cars weren’t always put together on a moving assembly line.       

 

*   In fact, it wasn’t until 1913 that Henry Ford began to assembly model T  

    Fords on a conveyer belt that moved the partially built cars past a long 

    line of worker who each repeated one or two tasks over and over until 

    the cars were completed.    

 

*   Before the assembly line, workers built automobiles one at a time.

 

*  The process was slow, especially since the workers often had to 

    handcraft the parts as they went along. 

 

*   The biggest problem with the old system was that the cars were so 

    expensive to make that most people couldn’t afford them. 

 

*  Today, fully automated assembly lines exist in nearly every industry.       

 

*   But what are the downsides?   

 

*   First and foremost is the boredom that so many people experience when 

     they repeat one or two small tasks all day long. 

 

*   A number of innovative steps have been taken to make work on an 

    assembly line more interesting, and in the process, improve the quality  

    and productivity of the line.

   

*   For example, workers in many plants have been given responsibility for 

    quality control.   

 

*  If they see something in the product that doesn’t look right, they can pull 

   a rope which halts the entire lines until the problem is fixed.

 

*   Another innovation which has improved job satisfaction is the 

    organization of teams in which workers can perform a number of tasks, 

    rather than one set task.   

 

*   Some plants now have “craft stations” where a team of workers may 

    spend up to thirty minutes on dozens of separate tasks.

 

*   Henry Ford might not agree with some of these innovations, but he 

    certainly was pleased by the first result of his new assembly line; but he 

    cut the cost of his cars by half and, for the first time, large numbers of 

    people could afford to buy them.

 

  1. How were cars built before the assembly line?

 

  1.   Early automobiles were simple to construct and took teams of workers  thirty minutes to complete.
  2.   They were  sold unassembled   with instructions for   putting them 

       together.

  1.   They were joined together one at a time, from start to finish
  2.   They were handcrafted on a conveyor belt. 

 

  1. What course would this talk be most appropriate for?

 

  1.   Small engine mechanics.
  1.   Twentieth-century American architecture.
  1.    Environmental science.   
  1.   The history of American factory

 

  1. What were some of the problems traditionally associated with assembly lines?

 

  1.   Assembly lines were so expensive to construct that no one could 

       afford to use them

  1.   Boredom of workers who had to repeat the same tasks over and over.
  2.   Too much to do if workers were given responsibility for quality control.
  3.   Too many delays resulting from workers organizing into teams.

 

  1. What can we infer from this talk about the connection between employee satisfaction and productivity?

 

  1.   Employees with good mood about their jobs possibly do a better job
  1.   Workers who participate in teams can produce cars in thirty minutes.
  1.   Most people can’t afford to buy a car unless they work on an assembly 

       line.

  1. Increased worker responsibility for quality control causes decreased worker productivity.

 

  1. According to the speaker, what did the early assembly line do for Henry Ford’s business?

 

  1.   It encouraged him to create teams of workers.
  1.   It put a lot of people out of jobs.
  1.   It gave him better quality control
  1.   It made his cars not so expensive

 

Questions 43 through 46. Listen to an American literature professor give an introductory lecture on a famous American author. 

 

*   Ernest Hemingway is one of America’s most beloved twentieth-century 

    authors. He was born in 1899.   

 

*   During World War One he served as a volunteer ambulance driver in 

    Italy, and he later served in the Italian infantry.   

 

*   Hemingway was badly wounded in 1918.

 

*   Hemingway’s wartime experiences had a considerable influence on his 

    writing.

      

*   In fact, most of his novels focus on the need for physical and 

    psychological strength to cope (overcome) with difficulty and often 

    violence.   

 

*   He was quite disillusioned (dissatisfaction) by the war and became a  

    leader of a group of young writers living in Europe who were known as  

    “lost generation”. 

 

*   Hemingway was fascinated by the sport of bullfighting and described it in 

    many of his novels and short stories.

   

*   He also hunted big game in Africa, such as elephants, buffalo, lions, and 

    tigers.   

 

*   He described his experiences as a hunter in nonfiction book entitled The 

    Green Hills of Africa.

 

*   Like Hemingway himself, his fictional heroes presented a tough (hard), 

    masculine image.    

 

*   Yet, his strong men had to courageously accept their fate.

        

*   In the Old Man and the Sea, one of Hemingway’s most renowned 

    (popular) short novels, an old fisherman struggles for hours to bring in a 

     huge and beautiful fish-only to have the fish eaten by sharks.

 

*   Toward the end of Hemingway’s life, he became sick, both physically 

    and mentally.      

 

*   This man, who had written so eloquently (fluently) about facing adversity 

    (difficulty) with courage and grace (mercy), committed suicide in 1961.

 

  1. According to the speaker, what effect did Hemingway’s war experiences have on his writing?

 

  1.   They encouraged his interest in bullfighting and big game hunting.
  1.   They helped him develop his description of a group of World War One 

 ambulance drivers as the “lost generation.”

  1.   They made him concentrate on the need for strength and courage in  

        the face of danger.

  1.   They caused him to write many anti-war novels and short stories.

 

  1. What did Hemingway describe in his book called The Green Hills of Africa?

 

  1.   His own experiences as a hunter in Africa.
  1.   His study of the origins of big game species in Africa. 
  1.   His love of the sport of bullfighting.
  1.   An old man’s struggles to capture an elephant.

 

  1. According to the author, how was Hemingway‘s own image similar to that of many of his fictional characters?

 

  1.   They were all disillusioned by war.
  1.   They shared a love of elephants and other big game.
  1.   They all had active memories of their service in the war.
  1.   They showed a strong, masculine image.

 

  1. What irony does the speaker imply about Hemingway’s suicide?

 

  1.   His war wounds had all been cured.
  2.   He was relatively young and still writing novels and short stories.
  3.   He had recorded all his life about the need to face difficulty with 

        courage.

  1. He had gracefully accepted the fact that he could no longer hurt in Africa.

 

Questions 47 through 50. Listen to this talk about pests and pesticides given in an environmental science class. 

 

*   We know that insecticides kill not only pests, but beneficial insects as 

     well.

           

*   We want beneficial insects-or beneficials, for short-in our gardens 

     because they eat the pests that eat our plants.   

 

*   When we kill our beneficials, we make it easier for the pests to survive.  

 

*   In fact, without a substantial supply of beneficials, pests control for 

     gardens is temporary at best.

 

*   Many beneficial insects are sold at garden centers and by mail.

   

*   But most gardens are already alive with native beneficials such as 

     ladybugs (kepik), suffrage flies, and parasitic wasps (tawon).   

 

*   With proper design of the garden and good gardening practices, these  

    beneficials can be encountered to stay in the garden, multiply, and eat 

    pests.

 

*   Beneficial insects require lots of energy to search for prey (mangsa).   

 

*   When pests are scarce, beneficials rely on pollen, a source of protein, 

     and plant nectar, a source of carbohydrates, for energy.   

 

*   Certain plants should be planted in the garden specifically to attract 

    beneficials.

   

*   These are plants which produce large quantities of pollen and nectar.

 

*   In the garden, beneficial insects generally prefer one of two 

     environments.   

 

*   Some such as ground spiders and beetles, look for food on the ground.   

 

*   Others look for prey in the leaves or flowers of garden plans high above  

     the ground.

   

*   Since it requires lot of energy maneuver through garden plants, these  

    high-flying beneficials are the ones most attracted to the nectar and 

    pollen-producing plants.

 

*   Beneficials are also distinguishable by their eating habits.     

 

*   Some, known as specialists, are choosy about what they eat.    

 

*   Others eat all sorts of pests.    

 

*  These generalists are important because when a particular pest is 

    scarce, there are others to eat.           

 

*   A garden should have both specialists and generalists.    

 

  1. According to the speaker, why is it undesirable to use insecticides on a garden?

 

  1.   Insecticides reduce the amount of pollen and nectar produced by 

        flowers.

  1.   Insecticides encourage pests to stay in the garden and multiply.
  1.   Insecticides kill helpful insects as well as pests.
  1.   Insecticides give beneficial energy to search for prey. 

 

  1. According to the speaker, how does growing the right plants help reduce pests?

 

  1.  By giving beneficial with the nectar and pollen they need for energy.
  1.  By reducing the amount of food for pests, which induces them to kill 

       each other.

  1.   By providing large amounts of protein and carbohydrates, which are 

       bad for pests.

  1. By providing enough pollen and nectar to kill ladybugs, suffrage flies, and parasitic wasps.

 

  1. What are the two different environments in which beneficials search for prey?

 

  1.   Some look for pests in garden centers where plants are plentiful; others look in smaller gardens. 
  2.   Some seek for food on the ground; others look higher in the leaves and flowers of plants.
  3.   Some look only in plants which produce pollen; others look only in  

       nectar-producing plants.

  1.   Some look for bugs in plants with shallow flowers; others look in 

       sunflowers and fetches.

 

  1. In this talk, what are specialists and generalists?

 

  1.   Specialists are choosy eaters; generalists eat lots of different pests.
  1.   Specialists eat bugs; generalists eat plants.
  1.   Specialists like pollen; generalists like nectar.
  1.   Specialists are ground spiders; generalists are beetles.